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The following resources were used to collect data to share with you on this website. Each resource has additional information if you seek further education about infants and lullabies

Special thanks to...

  • Audrey Dawson, Matthew Dawson, Cora Herek, Jennifer Sutton, Brittany Ward, and Ethan Zick for recording lullabies.

  • Daniell Iles and Taylor Corrick for providing photos.

  • Dr. Sharon Morrow, Mr. Jeff Rhone, and Dr. Lorna Zemke for guidance on this project. 

Abbas, S. I., Turkistani, M. H., Al-Gamdi, A. A., Alzahrani, S. A., Alzahrani, A. A., & Helmy, F. F. (2018). Factors

associated with postnatally maternal-infant attachment in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal for Health Sciences, 7(2), 127-131. doi:10.4103/sjhs.sjhs_50_18

Ackerman, C. E. (n.d.). What is attachment theory? Bowlby's 4 stages explained. Positive Psychology.       

Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34(10), 932-937. 

Alhusen, J. L., Hayat, M. J., & Gross, D. (2013). A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental

outcomes. Arch Womens Ment Health, 16(6), 1-16. doi:10.1007/s00737-013-0357-8

Baker, F. & Mackinlay, E. (2006). Sing, soothe and sleep: A lullaby education programme for first-time mothers. British

Journal of Music Education, 23, 147-160. doi:10.1017/S0265051706006899

Beckes, L. & Simpson, J. A. (2017). Attachment theory. In Encyclopædia Britannica online 

Byrn, M. D., & Hourigan, R. (2010). A comparative case study of music interactions between mothers and infants.

Contributions to Music Education, 37(1), 65-79. 

Custodero, L. A., & Johnson-Green, E.A. (2003). Passing the cultural torch: Musical experience and musical parenting

of infants. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51(2), 102-114.  

Doja, A. (2014). Socializing enchantment: A socio-anthropological approach to infant-directed singing, music education

and cultural socialization. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 45(1), 115-147.  

Edwards, J. (2014). The role of the music therapist in promoting parent infant attachment. Canadian Journal of Music

Therapy, 20(1), 38-48.  

Erdei, P. (Ed.). (1974). 150 American folk songs to sing, read and play. Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. 

Fancourt, D., & Perkins, R. (2018). The effects of mother-infant singing on emotional closeness, affect, anxiety, and

stress hormones. Music & Science, 1, 1-10. doi:10.1177/2059204317745746

Feierabend, J. M. (Comp.). (2000). The book of lullabies: Wonderful songs and rhymes passed down from generation to

generation. GIA Publications, Inc. 

Fraley, R. C. (2018). Adult attachment theory and research: A brief overview. R. Chris Fraley.

Hawes, B. L. (1974). Folksongs and function: Some thoughts on the American lullaby. The Journal of American Folklore,

87(344), 140-148. doi:10.2307/539474

Johnston, R. (1984). Folk songs North America sings: A source book for all teachers. Caveat Music Publishers Ltd. 

Kennedy, J. H., & Kennedy, C. E. (2004). Attachment theory: Implications for school psychology. Psychology in the

Schools, 41(2), 247- 259. 

Laskey, A., & Needleman, G. (2015). Search the Collection. The American Folk Song Collection at Holy Names

University Kodaly Center.

Locke, E. G. (Ed.). (1981). Sail away 155 American folk songs to sing, read, & play. Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. 

Lomax, J. A., Lomax, R. T., & Horton, J. (1939). Give My Heart Ease [Audio]. Library of Congress.

Lullaby. (2020). In Merriam-Webster online.

McDonald, D. T., & Simons, G. M. (1989). Musical growth and development: Birth through six. Schirmer Books.  

Mehr, S. A., & Krasnow, M. M. (2017). Parent-offspring conflict and the evolution of infant-directed song. Evolution and

Human Behavior, 38, 674-684. 

Missouri Department of Mental Health. (n.d.). What is social and emotional development?. Early childhood mental


Music and the Brain Santa Fe. (2014, February 27). August 4: Music and the developing brain- Laurel Trainor, PhD

[Video]. Youtube.  

Sroufe, L. A. (1979). The coherence of individual development: Early care, attachment, and subsequent developmental

issues. American Psychologist, 34(10), 834-842. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.834

Street, A., Young, S., Tafuri, J., & Ilari, B. (2003). Proceedings from the 5th Triennial ESCOM Conference: Mothers’

attitudes to singing to their infants. Hanover University of Music and Drama, Germany. 

Sullivan, R., Perry, R., Sloan, A., Kleinhaus, K., & Burtchen, N. (2011). Infant bonding and attachment to the caregiver:

Insights from basic and clinical science. Clin Perinatol, 38(4), 643-655. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2011.08.011

Swain, J. E. (2008). Baby stimuli and the parent brain: Functional neuroimaging of the neural substrates of parent-infant

attachment. Psychiatry, 5(8), 28-36. 

Trainor, L. J. (1996). Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies. Infant

Behavior and Development, 19(1), 83-92. 

Trehub, S. E., & Degé, F. (2016). Reflections on infants as musical connoisseurs. In G. E. McPhearson (Ed.), The child as

musician: A handbook of musical development (2nd ed., pp. 31-51). Oxford University Press. 

Trehub, S. E., Ghazban, N., & Corbeil, M. (2015). Musical affect regulation in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy

of Sciences, 1337, 186-192. doi:10.1111/nyas.12622

Trehub, S. E., & Gudmundsdottir, H. R. (2015). Mothers as singing mentors for infants. In G. Welch, D. M. Howard, & J.

Nix (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of singing. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199660773.013.25

Trehub, S. E., Hill, D. S., & Kamenetsky, S. B. (1997). Parents’ sung performances for infants. Canadian Journal of

Experimental Psychology, 51(4), 385-396. 

Waters, E., Merrick, S., Treboux, D., Crowell, J., & Albersheim, L. (2000). Attachment security in infancy and early

adulthood: A twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 71(3), 684-689.  

Winston, R., & Chicot, R. (2016). The importance of early bonding on the long-term mental health and resilience of

children. London Journal of Primary Care, 8(1), 12-14. doi:10.1080/17571472.2015.1133012

Zemke, L. (1989). Lovenotes: Music for the unborn child. Silver Lake College Publications.

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